Research Question 2: What key technologies are missing from our list?


Instructions: Please use these prompts to help you consider what might need to be added to the current list of Horizon Topics. Add your thoughts as bullet points below, using a new bullet point for each new technology or topic. Please add your comments to previous entries if you agree or disagree.

a. What would you list among the established technologies that some institutions are using today that arguably all museums should be using broadly to support or enhance museum education and interpretation?

b. What technologies that have a solid user base in consumer, entertainment, or other industries should museums be actively looking for ways to apply?

c. What are the key emerging technologies you see developing to the point that museums should begin to take notice during the next four to five years?

Each new topic entry must include a title, a description similar to the ones that are written now, and, if needed, a rationale as to why it is different from any of the existing topics. The Horizon Project research team will investigate each nomination entered here to see if it meets the criteria set for new topics (eg., that the topic represents a "real" technology, as opposed to a concept, a new idea, or a proposal; that it is sufficiently developed that research, projects, and information about it exist; and that it has a demonstrable link, or strong potential link, to education).

Please "sign" your contributions by marking them with the code of 4 tildes (~) in a row so that we can follow up with you if we need additional information or leads to examples.

Compose your entries like this:

New Topic Name
A few sentence description of the topic, plus any relevant hyperlinks. Don't forget to add your signature with the 4 tildes!



Added to RQ1 as New Technology Topics


Robotics
Advances in the last five years may signal that the age of the robot has at last arrived, and we may be on the brink of a “Cambrian explosion” in robotic evolution. We’ve had effective industrial robots for some time—strong, fast, accurate, tethered to one spot, and walled off from the co-workers they could potentially maim. This century is seeing the rapid development of smaller, mobile robots with a far wider range of capabilities. Now robots are gentle enough to help nursing home patients into or out of bed, and can come equipped with electronic “skin” responsive to the lightest touch. [Via Trendswatch 2014] I would like to +1 this addition! - Sam Sam Oct 30, 2014
A Famous Art Museum Is Offering Everyone Remote Tours, Using Robots
http://www.wired.com/2014/08/a-famous-art-museum-is-offering-everyone-remote-tours-using-robots/
Japan's New Robot Museum Guides Are All Too Human
http://mashable.com/2014/06/24/japans-new-robots-are-scary/
But introducing Asimo (the walking robot designed by Honda) didn't go so well at first
http://spectrum.ieee.org/automaton/robotics/humanoids/honda-asimo-humanoid-robot-gets-new-job-at-museum [- ewallis ewallis Nov 2, 2014] See *below - lkelly lkelly Nov 2, 2014
Spain museum uses robot to spot cracks in artwork
http://phys.org/news/2013-07-spain-museum-robot-artwork.html
The National Musuem of Australia has an inhersteing "robot" program: http://www.nma.gov.au/engage-learn/robot-tours - lkelly lkelly Oct 28, 2014 Here's a just hot off the press update on robots @NMA:
http://nma.gov.au/blogs/education/2014/10/27/on-new-jobs-robots-and-the-murray-darling-basin/ - lkelly lkelly Oct 29, 2014
Tate's After Dark : "Over five nights in August 2014, the public logged-on to the After Dark web app to take a space-age tour through 500 years of British art." : http://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-britain/special-event/after-dark - jasper jasper Nov 2, 2014
A so called museum of the future, Ars Electronica is very active in the field of robotics. Some of the applications can be relevant to a wider museum field. http://www.aec.at/c/en/5-robots-named-paul/ ; http://www.aec.at/aeblog/en/2014/07/09/hallo-roboter-auto/;
http://prix2013.aec.at/prixwinner/11160/ - kaja kaja Nov 2, 2014 The post by Ely raises a point - the NMA needs two full-time staff to manage their robot program. The report at some point needs to raise the issues of who is going to be managing/implementing these types of technologies. Will there be staff positions now no longer required and replaced by new kinds of jobs? I don't know who is thinking about this (ie we talk lots about how digital is changing our jobs yet we still have some people working in museums doing the same thing they were doing 20 years ago... - lkelly lkelly Nov 2, 2014 - jfoley jfoley Nov 5, 2014

Computer Vision
Computer vision refers to the growing capability of algorithms to understand and add meaning to images. This technology allows large image sets (like museum collections) to be seen and searched in new ways. Algorithms can add data for image qualities like color, orientation, and detail density. Face detection can tell when an image is a portrait or a group composition, and indicate mood based on facial features. Subject matter libraries can add tags algorithmically. Related images can be found based on similar characteristics and compositions. Museums can use this technology to make their collections easier to access. The casual visitor can browse visually, by color palette, or composition, etc. Keyword searches by more directed visitors can find better matches through the addition of computer-generated tags. For small or mid-size museums who can’t afford robust manual image tagging initiatives or don’t have the wherewithal for crowdsourcing, computer vision has the potential to quickly and inexpensively add value to image collections. One would expect next-generation DAMS or Collections Management Systems to have such capabilities built in.
http://opencv.org
http://www.clarifai.com
http://www.programmableweb.com/news/rapid-rise-computer-vision-technology/analysis/2014/08/27
- cweinard cweinard Nov 4, 2014 - jfoley jfoley Nov 5, 2014

Combined with Existing Technology Topics in RQ1


3D Scanning
3D scanning is the process of capturing digital information about the shape of a real-world object with equipment that uses a laser or light to measure the distance between the scanner and the object. Depending on the method, 3D scanning can capture data of very small objects scaling all the way up to large objects. 3D scanning allows for real world object to be virtually replicated. One of the most exciting uses of this data is in AR or VR applications. Beyond that, the file can be made accessible to a larger audience. 3D scanning also allows for virtual curation. Not only can more objects be made accessible, it creates a digital "back up" of the collection should anything unfortunate happen.
Information: http://www.dirdim.com/lm_everything.htm
Google Cardboard "Exhibit" demo: http://youtu.be/DFog2gMnm44?t=34m2s
Smithsonian use of 3D scanning: http://youtu.be/AWoqTGEw7WA - jaronowitz jaronowitz Oct 20, 2014
Unsure if this is the same but CSIRO and 3P learning couple 3D scanning technology with an immersive learning platform to re-create sites that cannot be easily accessed physically (Jenolan Caves, Australia):
http://www.csiro.au/Portals/Media/3D-Online-Education-Launch.aspx We are also using the same technology here to trial virtual excursions to one of our historic vessels. Should be ready to try out early 2015 - lkelly lkelly Oct 26, 2014
We have already found that 3D scanning is an important precursor to understand and master if we are to make sensible use of 3D printing - particularly where it comes to replica-making of items in our collections. So far we have experimented most successfully with specimens from our palaeontology and geology collections (unfortunately not yet written up anywhere). We have also found that, whilst what will soon be a 'domestic grade' 3D printer provides pretty good results, the quality of the scanner really makes a difference. [- ewallis ewallis Nov 2, 2014]- jludden jludden Nov 4, 2014
See also Liz Neely and Miriam Langer's paper for Museums and the Web in 2013
http://mw2013.museumsandtheweb.com/paper/please-feel-the-museum-the-emergence-of-3d-printing-and-scanning/ [- ewallis ewallis Nov 2, 2014]- jludden jludden Nov 4, 2014- cweinard cweinard Nov 4, 2014
Scanning sculpture in 3D - [- ewallis ewallis Nov 2, 2014]
Walters Art Museum example http://www.directdimensions.com/port_featuredprojects.php?fileName=fp_walters
Collection Museum in the UK collaborating with artist Oliver Laric: http://www.cnet.com/au/news/3d-print-your-own-museum/
National Museums Liverpool: http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/about/collections/research/caribbean-sculpture/3d-scanning/
Frankfurt's Liebieghaus Skulpturensammlung: http://news.artnet.com/art-world/breakthrough-in-virtualization-of-museum-collections-66386
We'll be publishing a paper soon on our findings using 3-D Scanning and printing technologies in public programs. It's almost like this category needs sub-sections -- there's the 3D scanning that's high-end and precise that will be useful as a research tool and can enhance online scholarly access to an object. More of this needs to be available from our museums in the future. And then there's the consumer created scans - which are also great for sharing and re-mixing -- but there is a distinction of use. - lizneely.mail lizneely.mail Nov 5, 2014[Editor's Note: Great examples! This fits in well with the existing topic 3D Printing so this topic will be broadened to include 3D Scanning for the purposes of voting.]

Added as New Trend to RQ3


Rise of the Indie Web
The Indie Web is a growing interconnected network of developers, tools, camps and hackathons designed to, in Tim Berners-Lee's words, "re-decentralise the web." The fundamental push behind the Indie Web is the idea that content silos like Medium, Facebook, Tumblr, and Twitter, while indispensable to the modern web, create serious issues around the persistence and ownership of content. The Indie Web is a return to the web's "first principles," with the goal of encouraging individual users and organizations to both own and publish their own content, but then also syndicate that content all over the web using open standards and frameworks. While this is a far-term horizon issue (five years plus), it's one that all museums will have to address sooner or later as we increasingly rely on proprietary walled-garden networks like Facebook for distribution of our content. The Indie Web provides a set of standards and technologies that allow us to own our content, but still take advantage of the distribution of content offered through proprietary networks and platforms, thereby not leaving us in the lurch when one of these companies radically alters its terms of service, or is sold to Yahoo, or decides to radically alter its business model. A great introduction is Dan Gilmor's "Welcome to the Indie Web Movement" on Slate. I would also recommend Anil Dash's "The Web We Lost" as a great summation of why this is a really critical issue. - Koven Koven Nov 3, 2014 - jfoley jfoley Nov 5, 2014 Agreed. Natural evolution of the basic tenet we've all had ingrained in us: separate the content from the delivery mechanism. For the cultural and historical heritage sector, the importance of maintaining our intellectual production over long spans of time pushes on this need to publish independently then syndicate, from platforms under our administrative management. This trend is likely to bubble up quickly, although we need to see some pioneers from our sector get it rolling. - dhegley dhegley Nov 4, 2014[Editor's Note: This reads more like a trend, so I am placing it in RQ3.]